Nabteb Gce 2022 Government Expo Answer (Obj And Theory) Questions And Answer, 2022/2023 NABTEB GCE Government OBJ And Theory Answers.
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1ai. Government as an institution of the state: Government is the machinery established by the state to pilot and organise its own affairs and administer its function and duties of the state. It is also the body that formulates the law. It also fortifies the territorial integrity of the land. It has three arms / organs /branches that function independently, these are the legislature, executive and the judiciary. These are the institutions of the state. Because in any state there has to be the three organs, without which there cannot be a state. Last week we treated the three organs of government. In any state there has to be rules and regulations referred to as laws or constitutions of the state. A state means a nation- state. These rules are the regulations guiding the behaviour of the men and women. According to Rousseau if not these laws life would be cruel, short, and brutish. And if no government there will be a lawless society, call anarchy, disorderliness and confusion and mighty be right.
Government is an institution because it consist the bodies of legislature, executive and judiciary has the power over the citizens in the state as well as the foreigners within the state.
1aii. Government as an Act of Governing: A government is a body that has the authority to make and the power to enforce laws within a civil, corporate, religious, academic, or other organization or group. In its broadest sense, “to govern” means to administer or supervise, whether over a state, a set group of people, or a collection of assets.
1aiii. Government As An Academic Field Of Study: government as an academic study requires multiple descriptions. Depending on what type of education is being taught (middle school, high school, undergraduate, graduate school, etc), the subject and content being taught will vary significantly. However, regardless of where or what is being taught, the academic field of study will always include how a country/state governs its citizens, manages the finances, works for the people, looks to grow, enforces the law, provides a foundation for businesses, controls borders, elects officials, settle disputes, and many more actions.
Whether the study of government looks at the political side of things (such as electing mayors, governors, the president, etc.), or looks at the action the government takes (spending tax money, providing healthcare, etc.), every individual needs to know the importance and role the government plays within a country and community.
1b. i. Preserve Order
ii. Defend Against External Enemies
iii. Manage Economic Conditions
iv. Redistribute Income and Resources
v. Provide Collective (Public) Goods
vi. Prevent Externalities
1c. i. Tax
iv. Licence fee
v. Surplus of the public sector units ————————pickk two from 5 option.
2a. A state is a compulsory political organization with a centralized government that maintains a monopoly on the legitimate use of force within a certain geographical territory.
2b. i. Population: There’s no state without a population. Population is a key element of any state, it refers to the number of people within a state. Simply put, it is impossible to have a state without population.
ii. Government and its forms: The government is a body or a system that’s called to establish and maintain the peace and safety of the population, and also to rule the stately affairs. This body is required to regulate the normal life of the population in order to make everybody obey the existing laws, protect the people’s rights, prevent crimes, ensure the people’s safety, provide basic amenities and infrastructure, manage the state’s economy and defend its territory.
iii. Permanence: The state is always permanent, no matter what the government is and how it changes with time. Permanence is the factor that helps the state develop in its own independent way.
iv. Recognition: The territory that’s called a state should be recognized by other states and all the existing international organizations. The international recognition prevents the breaking out of wars, violation of boundaries, and other interference in the life of the state.
v. Sovereignty: Is one of the essential factors that make a state a real legal state. This is the ability of a state to keep all the territories it possesses under full control, without any external influence. Without sovereignty, a state is only a colony and nothing more.
3a. Political power: Is the ability to influence or outright control the behaviour of people. The term “authority” is often used for power perceived as legitimate by the social structure. Power can be seen as evil or unjust, this sort of primitive exercise of power is historically endemic to humans, however as social beings the same concept is seen as good and as something inherited or given for exercising humanistic objectives that will help, enable and move people.
3b. 1) Legitimate Power: Legitimate power is also known as positional power. As these names suggest, legitimate power is the power that a person in the organization holds because of his/her position and that is considered to be legitimate. A manager who leads a team has certain responsibilities and also the right to delegate tasks/her to his subordinates as well as review their work and give feedback.
2) Expert Power: Again, as the name suggests, expert power is that kind of power which an employee has due to the knowledge and expertise that he/she possesses. Knowledge is wealth in today’s world and is highly sought after by organizations. Nice specialisations and extensive research work is highly valuable to businesses which are increasingly becoming complicated and specialised.
3) Coercive Power: Coercive power is the power that a person has which he/she uses to coerce or threaten other employees. Coercive power is used to enforce strict deadlines and punishable actions in the workplace and scare employees.
4) Referent power: Referent power is power that is a resultant of the personality of a person. The relationships that a person develops with co-workers and the charisma with which a person is able to present himself/herself to others results in a certain level of respect and approachability towards that person. Referent power can also be a result of closely knowing senior people in the organization or those who are at a position of leadership and authority of any kind.
5) Reward Power: Reward power arises out of the authority that a person has to recognise and reward people. Ways to do this can be by salary hikes, bonuses, paid leave, company sponsored vacation or even promotions. Employees who possess reward power can influence the performance of employees considerably.
9a. Before the creation of ECOWAS, the collective territory known as West Africa, was made up of an aggregation of states that had emerged from different colonial experiences and administrations which largely defined the boundaries of the 15 states domiciled in the area.
Even though Member States of the community now make use of three official languages (English, French and Portuguese), there are well over a thousand existing local languages including cross-border native tongues such as Ewe, Fulfulde, Hausa, Mandingo, Wolof, Yoruba, Ga, etc. that constitute its over 300 million people tucked in a vast land of about 5.1 million square kilometres.
Prior to colonialism, the area played host to many proud empires and kingdoms that spanned centuries, some of which included Ghana, Mali Songhai, Wolof, Oyo, Benin and Kanem Bornu.
The region’s cultural, linguistic and ecological diversity presents both opportunities and challenges for the integration process. The longing to combine forces politically and economically has always been recognised as a step forward in the desire to engender co-prosperity in the area.
In this regard, the first effort at integration dates back to 1945 with the creation of CFA franc that brought the francophone countries of the region into a single currency union. Then in 1964, Liberian president William Tubman proposed an economic union for West Africa leading to an agreement which was signed in 1965 by the four states of Cote d’Ivore, Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone.
However, it was not until 1972 that a proposal for a union of West African States emerged. That year, the Nigerian head of state Gen Yakubu Gowon and his Togolese counterpart Gnassingbe Eyadema toured the region in support of the integration Idea. Thanks to the drafts that emanated from their efforts. These formed the basis for the emergence of the treaty of Lagos in 1975 which birthed ECOWAS. The treaty of Lagos was originally touted as an economic initiative, but emerging political events led to its revision and therewith the expansion of scope and powers in 1993.
ECOWAS is meant to foster interstate economic and political cooperation. History is on its side in this regard. Dating back to pre-colonial times, West Africans have been among the world’s most mobile populations although much of the migration had been intra-regional. About 7.5 million West African migrants (3 percent of the regional population) are living in ECOWAS countries other than their own. The 1.2 million other migrants are dispersed mainly in North America and Europe. Estimated at about 149 million in 2013, women constitute over 50 percent of the region’s population. The cross-border migration of women as traders and business persons places them as potential champions for promoting integration. This reality needs to be fully exploited.
The diverse socio-cultural dimension of development should be a necessary building block for establishing peace and security in the region. Drawing strength from its past, leaders of the community have been making sacrifices to keep the shape of the political structure of the region. In 1976, Cape Verde, one of the two Lusophone countries in the region joined ECOWAS, and in December 2000, Mauritania withdrew its membership.
At all times, ECOWAS chief executive officers presiding initially as Executive Secretaries and now as Presidents, defer to the supreme organ of the community-the Authority of the Heads of State of Government for guidance. This body is usually headed by a Chairman.
The list below shows the various chairmen in a chronological order:
• Gnassingbé Eyadéma (Togo) 1977–1978
• Olusegun Obasanjo (Nigeria) 1978–1979
• Léopold Sédar Senghor (Senegal) 1979–1980
• Gnassingbé Eyadéma (Togo) 1980–1981
• Siaka Stevens (Sierra Leone) 1981–1982
• Mathieu Kérékou (Benin) 1982–1983
• Ahmed Sékou Touré (Guinea) 1983–1984
• Lansana Conté (Guinea) 1984–1985
• Muhammadu Buhari (Nigeria) 1985 – 27 August 1985
• Ibrahim Babangida (Nigeria) 27 August 1985 – 1989
• Dawda Jawara (the Gambia) 1989–1990
• Blaise Compaoré (Burkina Faso) 1990–1991
• Dawda Jawara (the Gambia) 1991–1992
• Abdou Diouf (Senegal) 1992–1993
• Nicéphore Soglo (Benin) 1993–1994
• Jerry John Rawlings (Ghana) 1994 – 27 July 1996
• Sani Abacha (Nigeria) 27 July 1996 – 8 June 1998
• Abdulsalami Abubakar (Nigeria) 9 June 1998 – 1999
• Gnassingbé Eyadéma (Togo) 1999
• Alpha Oumar Konaré (Mali) 1999 – 21 December 2001
• Abdoulaye Wade (Senegal) 21 December 2001 – 31 January 2003
• John Agyekum Kufuor (Ghana) 31 January 2003 – 19 January 2005
• Mamadou Tandja (Niger) 19 January 2005 – 19 January 2007
• Blaise Compaoré (Burkina Faso) 19 January 2007 – 19 December 2008
• Umaru Musa Yar’Adua (Nigeria) 19 December 2008 – 18 February 2010
• Goodluck Jonathan (Nigeria) 18 February 2010 – 17 February 2012
• Alassane Ouattara (Côte d’Ivoire) 17 February 2012 – 28 March 2014
• John Dramani Mahama (Ghana) 28 March 2014 –19 Mai 2015
• Macky Sall (Senegal)– 19 Mai 2015 –June 2016
• Madam Ellen Johnson Sirleaf (Liberia)– June 2016- June 2022
• Faure Gnassingbe(Togo)- June 2022- 31 July 2022
• Muhammadu Buhari (Nigeria)- 31 July 2022 – till date
By subscribing to the vision of the founding fathers of ECOWAS, today’s leaders have taken ownership of the grand objectives designed to improve the living conditions of the citizenry, ensure economic growth and create an environment conducive for true development and integration.
9b. The major achievements of ECOWAS through the years cut across all sectors and include:
• The adoption of the Macroeconomic Convergence Report by the ECOWAS Convergence Council
• Establishment of the ECOWAS Monetary Institute (EMI)
• Adoption of methodological guides for the harmonization of Public Finance Statistics, Government Financial Operations Tables (TOFE), External Trade Statistics, Balance of Payment (BOP) and International Investment Position (IIP).
• Conclusion of the review of the Sahel Strategy document and its action plan to boost regional security.
• Formulation of an ECOWAS Common Trade Policy (CTP) and ECOWAS Trade Development Strategy
• Completion of the Economic Partnership Agreement (EPA) with the signing by 13 Member States.
• Custom Union in the offing with the implementation of the CET by Eight Member-States
• Free Movement of goods and persons boosted with the adoption of the ECOWAS Biometric Identity Card to facilitate mobility and promote security in the region.
• Drafting of a Regional Border Management Manual for use in immigration/security training institutions.
• Launching of the Ecolink project, which aims to transform and improve key operations within the ECOWAS Community.
• The Systems, Applications & Products (SAP) component of Ecolink aims at improving the financial management systems and ensuring real-time information for effective decision-making in the Community Institutions.
• Promotion of strategic products for food security and sovereignty including combating cross-border livestock disease.
• Renewed efforts to enhance the environmental governance, general environmental protection, capacity building as well as Sustainable resource management for development in the Member States.
• Re-award of the contract for the construction of the Sèmè-Kraké Joint Border Post (Benin-Nigeria)
• Evaluation of tenders completed for the works, contract for final engineering designs for the rehabilitation of sections of the Enugu-Bemenda road between Nigeria and Cameroon and the construction of a Joint Border Post (JBP) and a Border Bridge at Mfum border.
7a. Reasons for the adoption of federalism in Nigeria include:
1. The Plural nature of Nigeria: Nigeria is a plural society of over 250 tongues and tribes. Besides the Big Three – Igbo, Hausa and Yoruba, there are other macro and micro ethnic minorities in the country. Federalism was favoured among other systems of government in a bid to averting both fancied and real fear of domination among the minorities.
2. The Size of Nigeria: This is another reason for the adoption of federalism in Nigeria. With the total area of 923,768 km², Nigeria cannot justifiably be administered by a lone “leviathan” from the top. Such arrangement would inter alia breed neglect, frustration and aggression; no thanks to the red-tape inherent in unitarism. Federalism shares power between the central and regional governments; thus promoting efficiency in service delivery and governance.
3. Colonial Background: Nigeria has been dubbed as a product of British colonial suturing. Generally speaking, one of the reasons for federalism is common historical or ancestral background. In Nigeria’s case, the tongues and tribes that made up Nigeria has one colonial history. More so, the colonial masters with the Richard’s Constitution in 1947 launched Nigeria onto the path of the present federal system of government via the regionalization of the country.
4. Geographical Contiguity: The proximity of the tongues and tribes in Nigeria made it possible for the adoption of federalism in the country. There are Benin and Togo in between Ghana and Nigeria, two of the former British African colonies. Nigeria and Ghana cannot easily form a country chiefly because they are not geographically contiguous.
5. Framework for Development: Federalism as said earlier decentralizes power. This feature of federalism is widely believed to be a veritable framework for even and need-sensitive development. The advanced economies where Nigeria had borrowed leaves from, such as USA practice federalism.
6. The Interest of the Leaders: Nigeria’s adoption of federalism is also in the interest of the leaders. Granted is the fact that federalism was launched in Nigeria by expatriate leaders, its continued existence since independence is standing firm on the interest of the indegeneous leaders. The first military head of state, General J.T.U Aguiyi Ironsi for instance was interested in a unitary Nigeria and he scrapped federalism. Federalism did not return to Nigeria until after his death.
7. Security and Influence in the Comity of Nations: Size and population of a country is among the determinants of the level of power and influence which a country commands.Given the size of Nigeria, it lays claims to being the “Giant of Africa.” Many a nation in the international community recognizes her as such. The intimidating size of Nigeria does not only earn her an international respect but also provides her with a buffer to attacks by rogue nations and disgruntled neighbours. The size of Nigeria is managed and maintained with federalism.
7b. i. The presence of constituent parts called republics, states, etc.
ii. The relations between the federation and its entities are governed by the Federal Constitution.
iii. Foreign policy activities are conducted by the federal government on behalf of all entities.
iv. The bicameral structure of the federal parliament where one is the organ of the federal government, and the other is representing the interests of the federation (this is a mandatory feature of a federal state).
v. The subjects of the federation can have their own flags, emblems anthems and all other signs of the state, except state sovereignty.
vi. The subjects of the federation cannot be independent subjects of international relations. Read more:
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